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Glossary of Golf Turfgrass Terms (D-F)

A-C    G-L    M-O    P-R    S    T-W


damping off - A disease of seeds or young seedlings caused by fungi.

desiccation - Drying. A type of winter injury sustained on exposed turf areas when subjected to high winds.

dethatch - The procedure of removing an excessive thatch accumulation either mechanically, such as vertical mowing, or biologically, such as by topdressing with soil.

disease - Disturbance in normal functioning and growth, usually caused by pathogenic fungi, bacteria, or viruses.

dolomite (dolomitic limestone) - A limestone rich in magnesium carbonate.

dormant - Resting, or non-vegetative state, as it pertains to turfgrass growth.

drainage - The rapid removal of water by surface contouring (swales or ditches), or subsurface tile drainage. There are three main types of drainage. Surface drainage refers to water moved across the surface as a result of a descending grade. Internal drainage refers to the movement of water through the pores of a soil or HTMLContent zone. Subsurfacedrainage usually refers to the movement of water through underlying drainage pipe or buried gravel layer such as in a USGA green.


ECe (electrical conductivity of soil extract) - A laboratory measurement used to categorize the relative salinity hazard of a soil. Measured in decisiemens per meter of soil (dSm -1 ). An EC e > 4 is beginning to become saline for turfgrass growth.

ECw (electrical conductivity of water) - A laboratory measurement used to categorize the relative salinity hazard or total dissolved salts in irrigation water. Measured in decisimens (dSm -1 ).

effluent water - see recycled / reclaimed / reuse water

emergence - The stage of germination and growth at which shoots appear at the soil surface.

emulsion - Systems of oil dispersed in water or systems of water dispersed in oil. A more or less stable mixture, but not a true solution.

emulsifiable - Capable of being placed in emulsion.

erosion - The wearing away of the soil or land surface by running water, wind, or other geological agents.

ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage) - Used to classify sodic and saline-sodic soil conditions. Measured in percentage (%) units of the total sodium in relation to the total exchange capacity of the soil.

evapotranspiration - The combination of soil evaporation and transpiration from the plant. Total water loss in vapor form from plant and soil.


face/bunker - The slope or incline of a bunker constructed in the direction of the putting green which is intended to create an added obstacle for a player to negotiate during play.

fairway - There is no precise definition in the Rules of Golf for fairway. It is deemed to be an area between the tee and putting green included in the term "through the green." In terms of maintenance, fairways are those areas of the course which are mowed at heights between 0.375 and one inch, depending upon grass species and cultural intensity desired. Fairways normally measure approximately 40 yards in width, but vary from about 30 yards to more than 100 yards depending on the caliber of the golf course involved and limitations imposed by architecture or terrain.

fertigation - The application of fertilizer through an irrigation system.

fertilizer - A nutrient material applied to plants to assist growth.

flocculate - To aggregate individual particles into small groups or granules; used especially with reference to clay and colloid behavior.

foliar fertilizers - Soluble plant nutrient materials applied to the leaf surface and capable of being absorbed through leaves.

footprinting: frost - Discolored areas of dead leaf tissue shaped in the form of foot impressions that are left after walking on live, frosted turfgrass leaves.

footprinting: wilt - Temporary foot impressions left on a turf because the flaccid or wilted leaves of grass plants are suffering from wilt. The plants have insufficient turgor to spring back after being walked on or traveled over by maintenance equipment.

forking - The use of a pitchfork or similar device as an expedient means of cultivation of small areas of putting greens for the purpose of improving water penetration.

fumigant - A liquid or solid substance that forms vapors that destroys most biotic agents (e.g. pathogens, insects, etc). Fumigants are usually used in soils or closed structures such as under a tent.

fungicide - A chemical that kills or inhibits fungi.

fungus - A low form of plant life which, lacking chlorophyll and being incapable of manufacturing its own food, lives off dead or living plant or animal matter.

friable - Easily crumbled in the fingers.