The resources available to a Committee will differ depending on the course or the level of competition being run and so a Committee may not be able to implement all of the suggested practices. Where this is the case, the Committee will need to decide its priorities for each competition.
The period before the competition begins is arguably the most important in terms of preparation to ensure the smooth running of the competition. The Committee’s duties during this period include:
Terms of the Competition determine the structure of each competition including who may enter, how to enter, what the schedule and format of the competition will be and how ties will be decided. It is the responsibility of the Committee to:
Set clear and concise terms for each competition.
Make these terms available to players in advance of the competition.
Interpret the terms should any questions arise.
Other than in exceptional circumstances, the Committee should avoid altering the Terms of the Competition once the competition has started.
It is the responsibility of each player to know and follow the Terms of the Competition.
Sample wording of Terms of the Competition can be found at www.USGA.org.
The Committee may make Terms of the Competition that restrict who is eligible to play.
a. Gender Requirements
A competition may be limited to players of a specific gender.
b. Age Limits
A competition may be limited to players within a specific age range. If so, it is important to specify the date on which the players must be of age. Some examples are:
For a junior competition where players must not be older than 18, the Terms of the Competition might state that a player must be 18 or younger on the first day of the year or another date such as the final scheduled day of the competition.
For a senior competition where players must be 55 or older, the Terms of the Competition might state that a player must have reached their 55th birthday on or before the first day of the competition.
c. Amateur Status
A competition may be limited to amateur golfers only, professional golfers only or may allow all players to compete against each other. When a competition is open to all players, the Committee should ask players to identify their status (for example, “amateur”) in advance of the competition, such as on an entry form.
d. Handicap Limits
The Committee may set restrictions and/or limits on the handicaps eligible for entry or use in a competition. These may include:
Setting upper or lower limits on handicaps.
In team formats, such as Foursomes or Four-Ball:
Limiting the maximum difference between partners’ handicaps. The Committee may also choose to reduce the handicap for the player with the higher handicap to meet the requirement, or
Limiting the maximum total handicaps of partners. The Committee may also choose to reduce the handicap for one or both players to meet the requirement.
'For a multi-round competition played over one day or consecutive days, specifying whether each player will play the entire competition with the handicap as of the first round, or if the player will use their revised handicap for each round. It is recommended that the player’s handicaps remain unchanged between such rounds.
e. Residence and Membership Status
The Committee may limit entry to players who reside in or were born in a specific county, state, country or other geographic area. It may also require that all players are members of a specific club, organization or golf union.
The way to enter the competition and the starting and ending dates for entry should be specified.
Method of entry, such as completing an online entry form, returning an entry form by mail or entering names on a sheet any time before the player’s start time.
How and when any entry fee is to be paid.
When entries must be received. The Committee can stop accepting entries on a specific date or allow players to enter up to the day of the competition.
The procedure to be used in determining the field when the competition is oversubscribed, such as accepting entries in the order received, through a qualifier or based on lowest handicaps.
The following points in relation to the format of the competition should be specified where required:
Dates of play or, if it is a match play event over a long period of time, the final date by which each match must be completed.
Form of play (for example, match play, stroke play or stroke play qualifying for match play).
Number and order of holes in a round.
Number of rounds, including whether there will be a cut.
If there is to be a cut, when it will be made, if ties for the final position will be broken and how many players will continue play in later rounds.
Which teeing areas are to be used for handicap competitions, the Committee may specify which tees all players must use or that the tees to be used are dependent on the player’s handicap, gender and /or age. Alternatively, the Committee may allow each player to choose which tees they wish to play from.
Stroke index allocation, such as the order of holes at which handicap strokes are to be given or received.
If there will be multiple flights or draws and how they will be organized, see Section 5G(1).
What prizes will be awarded (including who is eligible to win those prizes). For competitions involving amateur golfers, the Committee should ensure that prizes for amateurs are allowed under the Rules of Amateur Status.
a. Alternative Scoring Methods
When the form of play is Stableford, Maximum Score or Par/Bogey, the Terms of the Competition may need to specify certain aspects in relation to how points will be scored, or the maximum number of strokes that a player can score on each hole.
Stableford is a form of stroke play where points are awarded to a player for each hole by comparing the player’s score to the fixed target score for the hole. The fixed target score is par unless the Committee sets a different fixed score (see Rule 21.1b).
If the Committee decides to set a different fixed target score, it may set it in the Terms of the Competition as bogey, birdie, or some other fixed score.
c. Maximum Score
When the form of play is Maximum Score, the Terms of the Competition should specify the maximum number of strokes a player can score on each hole (seeRule 21.2).
The maximum may be set in one of the following ways:
Relative to par, such as two times par,
A fixed number, such as 8, 9 or 10, or
With reference to the player’s handicap, for example net double bogey.
When considering what maximum to set for a Maximum Score competition, the Committee should consider the following:
The maximum par for the holes being played. For example, for a par 3 course it may be appropriate to set the maximum score per hole to be a fixed score of 6; however if there are par 5’s on a course then it would not be appropriate to have a fixed score as low as 6.
The standard of the golfers taking part. For example, for a beginners’ competition the maximum score should give the players a reasonable opportunity to complete the holes but be at a level to encourage players to pick up when they have had real difficulty on the hole.
Whether scores are to be submitted for handicap purposes. Where the Committee wants a competition to count for handicap purposes, the maximum hole score should not be set lower than net double bogey.
When the form of play is Par/Bogey, the Terms of the Competition should specify the fixed score against which the player’s score on a hole is compared to determine whether the player wins or loses a hole. For a Par competition, the fixed score would normally be par, and for a Bogey competition the fixed score would normally be bogey (one over par).
e. Other Forms of Play
There are many other forms of play such as Scrambles and Greensomes. See Section 9 and/or www.USGA.org for more information on these and other forms of play.
f. Team Competitions
When the form of play involves a team competition, the Committee should consider if additional Terms of the Competition are required. Examples include:
Any restrictions on coaches or advice givers (see Model Local Rule Section 8H).
In match play:
The order in which the team members will play, for example, if it must be in handicap order, or if it will be decided by the team captain.
If tied matches will be acceptable or if they must be played until a winner is determined.
The number of points awarded for winning or tying a match.
In competitions with multiple teams, how the winner would be determined if two or more teams are tied at the end of the competition.
If some matches are completed while others cannot be completed on the arranged day due to poor light or weather, the Terms of the Competition should clarify how the completed and incomplete matches will be treated. For example, the Committee could count completed matches to stand as played and incomplete matches to be treated as a tie or replayed on a later date. Or, that all matches are to be replayed, and each team is free to alter its original team.
If any remaining matches will be played to a conclusion once a team has won the match or competition.
» Specify what the result of an individual match will be if one or more players are unable to start or finish a match for any reason (such as illness). For example, the Committee could state that the result of such a match will be a tied match, or a win for the opponent. If holes up and down are taken into consideration for countback purposes, the Committee may also decide to specify a score for the match, for example 6&5. In stroke play:
The number of scores to count in each team’s total score.
If the scores to be counted will be based on 18 holes or on a hole-by- hole basis.» How a tie in the overall competition will be decided, for example by a play-off, a method of matching scores (see Section 5A(6)) or considering discarded scores.
In stroke play, Rule 3.3b holds players responsible for ensuring the accuracy of their hole scores and promptly returning the scorecard to the Committee at the completion of the round.
The Committee should tell players where the scorecards should be returned, have someone available to resolve any potential issues the players might have with the Rules and validate the scores.
When possible, a quiet, private area should be provided for players to use for checking the scores on their scorecards, speaking with a member of the Committee, if needed, and returning their scorecards.
a. Specify When Scorecard Is Considered Returned
The Committee should specify when the scorecard is considered returned. Options include:
Defining the scoring area and allowing a player to make alterations on their scorecard up until they have left that scoring area. This would mean that, even if the player has handed the scorecard to a referee or recorder, changes could still be made while the player is in the area.
Providing a box for the player to deposit the scorecard, in which case it is considered returned as soon as the player places it in the box. This approach might not give a player as much protection from returning an incorrect scorecard, but it may be the best method when limited resources are available or many players are finishing at the same time (for example, when there is a shotgun start).
b. Requesting Players to Provide Other Information on Scorecards
The Committee may require players to enter their handicap on the scorecard (Model Local Rule L-2).
The Committee may request that players assist the Committee by completing other scorecard related tasks that are the Committee’s responsibility. The Committee must not apply a penalty to a player under the Rules of Golf if they fail to comply with these other requests or make a mistake in doing so, but the Committee may provide a disciplinary sanction for a player who fails repeatedly to comply with such a request. For example, the Committee may ask players to:
Total the scores or, in a Four-Ball competition, determine the score that counts for the side.
Enter the points scored for each hole on the scorecard in Stableford.
Enter whether the hole was won, lost or tied in Par/Bogey.
Enter specific details on the scorecard such as name, date and name of the competition.
Similarly, the Committee may request that players assist the Committee by entering their scores into a computer system at the end of the round, but there is no penalty under the Rules of Golf if the player fails to comply with this request or makes a mistake in doing so. But the Committee may provide a disciplinary sanction, for example in a Code of Conduct, for a player who fails repeatedly to comply with such a request.
In match play and stroke play, the Terms of the Competition can be used to alter the way in which ties are decided.
a. Match Play
If a match is tied after the final hole, the match is extended one hole at a time until there is a winner (see Rule 3.2a(4)), unless the Terms of the Competition state otherwise.
The Terms of the Competition should specify if the match may end in a tie or if the play-off method will differ from that specified in Rule 3.2a(4). Options include the following:
The match ends in a tie,
The match will be extended starting at a specific hole other than the first hole, or
There will be a play-off over a fixed number of holes (for example, 9 or 18 holes).
In a handicap match, the stroke index allocation as set by the Committee should be used to determine where handicap strokes should be given or received in extra holes unless the Terms of the Competition state otherwise.
A tie in a match should not be decided by a stroke-play play-off.
b. Stroke Play
The Terms of the Competition should specify whether a competition may end in a tie, or if there will be a play-off or matching of scorecards to determine the winner and other finishing positions.
A tie in stroke play should not be decided by a match.
c. Play-Off in Stroke Play
If there is to be a play-off in stroke play, the Terms of the Competition should set the following:
When the play-off will be held, for example if it will start at a specific time, as soon as possible after the last group finishes or on a later date.
Which holes will be used for the play-off and the order in which they will be played.
The number of holes over which the play-off will be played, for example, if it will be a hole-by-hole play-off or over a longer period such as 2, 4 or 18 holes, and what to do if it there is still a tie.
In the regular form of stroke play, if a play-off for a handicap competition is over fewer than 18 holes, the number of holes played should be used to determine the number of strokes to be deducted. For example, if a play-off is over one hole, one-eighteenth of the handicaps should be deducted from the scores for the play-off hole. Handicap stroke fractions should be applied in accordance with the rules or recommendations contained within the World Handicap System publications or other guidance as provided by the handicapping body in the local jurisdiction.
For play-offs for net competitions where the stroke index allocation is used, such as Four-Ball, Par/Bogey or Stableford competitions, handicap strokes should be applied during the play-off holes as they were assigned for the competition, using the stroke index allocation.
Players are only required to return a scorecard for the play-off if the Committee issues them to the players.
d. Matching Scorecards (Also Known as a Scorecard Count-Back)
If a play-off is not feasible or desired, the Terms of the Competition may specify that any ties will be decided by matching scorecards. Even when the winner of a competition is to be decided by a play-off, other positions in the competition may be decided by matching scorecards. The method of matching scorecards should also provide for what will happen if this procedure does not produce a winner.
One method of matching scorecards is to determine the winner based on the best score for the last round. If the tying players have the same score for the last round or if the competition consisted of a single round, determine the winner based on the score for the last nine holes, last six holes, last three holes and finally the 18th hole. If there is still a tie, then the last six holes, three holes and final hole of the first nine holes will be considered in turn. If the round is less than 18 holes, the number of holes used in matching scores may be adjusted.
If this process does not result in a winner, the Committee could consider the competition a tie, or alternatively could decide the winner by a random method (such as tossing a coin).
Matching scorecards is also known as a card count-back or a scorecard play-off.
If this method is used in a competition with a multiple tee start, it is recommended that the “last nine holes, last six holes, etc.” are holes 10-18, 13-18, etc.
For net competitions where the stroke index allocation as set by the Committee is not used, such as individual stroke play, if the last nine, last six, last three holes scenario is used, one-half, one-third, one-sixth, etc. of the handicaps should be deducted from the score for those holes. Handicap stroke fractions should be applied in accordance with the rules or recommendations contained within the World Handicap System publications or other guidance as provided by the handicapping body operating in the local jurisdiction.
In net competitions where the stroke index allocation as set by the Committee is used, such as Four-Ball stroke play, Par/Bogey or Stableford competitions, handicap strokes should be applied consistently with how they were applied for the competition.
It is important for the Committee to clarify in the Terms of the Competition when and how the result of the competition is final as this will affect how the Committee will resolve any Rules issues that occur after play is complete in both match play and stroke play (see Rule 20).
a. Match Play
Examples of when the Terms of the Competition may state that the result of a match is final include:
When the result is recorded on an official scoreboard or other identified place, or
When the result is reported to a person identified by the Committee.
When a match is determined to be final once the result is recorded on an official scoreboard, the Committee may take responsibility for recording the winner’s name on the scoreboard or it may pass that responsibility to the players. In some cases the official scoreboard will be a prominent structure and in other cases it might be a sheet of paper in the golf shop or locker room.
In cases where a referee has been assigned by the Committee to accompany a match, any announcement of the result of the match by the referee on the final putting green is not the official announcement unless it was stated as such in the Terms of the Competition.
b. Stroke Play
Examples of when the Terms of the Competition may state the competition to be closed in stroke play include:
All results have been posted on the scoreboard or noticeboard,
The winners have been announced at a prize giving, or
The trophy has been awarded.
In stroke-play qualifying followed by match play, Rule 20.2e(2) stipulates that the stroke-play portion of the competition is closed when the player has teed off to start their first match.
The Terms of the Competition set out the structure of the competition and once a competition has started, the terms may be altered only in very exceptional circumstances.
An example of a situation where the Terms of the Competition should not be altered:
Since players begin a round with the expectation that a certain number of holes will be played and may base their play on that, the number of holes to be played in a round should not be changed once that round has started. For example, if bad weather results in play being suspended after all the players have completed 9 holes of an 18-hole round, the Committee should not announce the results based on only 9 holes.
Examples of situations where there are exceptional circumstances and the Terms of the Competition may be altered:
If circumstances such as bad weather affect the number of rounds that can be played in the time available, the number of rounds to be played, or number of holes in any rounds not yet started, may be altered to accommodate the circumstances. Similarly, if those circumstances mean the planned format cannot be accommodated in the time available, the format of the competition may be changed.
The method for deciding ties should not be altered unless there are exceptional circumstances. For example, if the method of deciding a tie for a stroke-play competition was stated to be a hole-by-hole play-off, but bad weather meant such a play-off was not possible, the Committee can change the method of deciding the tie to a scorecard count-back.
The Terms of the Competition may require players to comply with an antidoping policy. It is a matter for the Committee to write and interpret its own anti-doping policy, although guidance in developing such a policy can usually be provided by the national governing body.
When preparing for a competition, the Committee should make sure that the course is properly marked and refresh any markings that might be used for general play, or change them if necessary. While there typically is no one “right” way to mark a course, failing to mark it properly or at all can lead to situations where a player is unable to proceed with any certainty under the Rules or the Committee will be forced to make decisions while play is ongoing that might result in players being treated differently.
Section 2 provides detailed guidance and recommendations on how to mark the course for general play, but it also applies equally to competitions and should be referenced by the Committee when preparing for competitions.
Where changes are made to the course’s marking for a competition, the Committee should ensure these are clearly communicated to any players who regularly play the course so that they are less likely to proceed incorrectly.
In addition to the information in Section 2, the Committee may wish to consider the following items:
The Committee is responsible for ensuring that all boundaries are marked properly. It is a good practice to paint a small white circle around the base of any white stake or other boundary object that could get moved during play so that it can be returned to its original location. If lines or paint dots are being used to mark a boundary, they should be refreshed so that they can easily be seen. The Local Rules should clarify any boundaries that are defined in any manner other than stakes or fences (see Model Local Rule A-1).
Before a competition, the Committee may wish to reassess the marking of some or all penalty areas.
Penalty areas that contain bodies of water should not be made a part of the general area, but their edges may be adjusted.
Other penalty areas may be removed or added, or their edges altered to change the difficulty of a hole, such as where it is considered appropriate to provide a more severe penalty for an errant shot. For example, the Committee may decide to mark areas of dense trees and bushes as penalty areas for general play, but not for competitions. Care should be taken in doing this so that it is clearly communicated to any players who regularly play the course.
When penalty areas are added or removed, the Committee should consult the rules or recommendations contained within the World Handicap System publications or other guidance as provided by the handicapping body in the local jurisdiction to determine if the change will have an impact on the issued Course Rating.
The colour of some penalty areas may be changed from red to yellow or the reverse. For example, for certain competitions it may be desirable for a penalty area close to a putting green to be marked yellow where the Committee does not want to allow the option of dropping on the putting green side of the penalty area when the ball has rolled back into it. In some cases, it may also make sense to provide a dropping zone as an additional option, for example, for an island green where players have a long carry over water.
For general play, the Committee may have used a minimal number of stakes to mark penalty areas or they may have been removed, resulting in portions of some penalty areas being outside the marked area. For competitions, all stakes should be inspected and supplemented if necessary to ensure that the penalty areas are properly marked for the competition.
When possible, it is good practice to paint red or yellow lines around penalty areas rather than just relying on stakes. A line will ensure the proper areas are included or excluded, the edge will not be altered by the removal of a stake and a player will easily be able to determine where to take relief. Typically, when a line has been painted, fewer stakes are required.
For most courses, the Committee should not need to do anything special to prepare bunkers for the competition. They should be freshly raked on the morning of the competition and the rakes placed where the Committee prefers (see Section 2D). If the edge of a bunker is difficult to determine, the Committee should consider whether it could be more clearly defined (either through maintenance practices, marking or a Local Rule) to avoid confusion among players and referees.
The Committee should review the entire course to ensure that any areas that should be marked as ground under repair are properly marked. It should also clarify the status of any obstructions or integral objects using Local Rules (see Model Local Rule F-1).
Ideally a Committee should mark any areas of ground under repair before the start of a competition. But a Committee can define an area to be ground under repair during the round in match play or stroke play if it is warranted.
When relief is given from such an unmarked area during the round, the Committee should mark the area as ground under repair as soon as possible to ensure that all other players in the field are aware of the status of the area.
If there are no play zones on the course, the Committee should make sure they are properly identified. The Committee may also consider putting notices in these areas to ensure that players are fully aware that they are not allowed to play from them.
Temporary structures such as tents or grandstands may be constructed for some competitions. The status of these structures will need to be clarified in the Local Rules as either Immovable Obstructions or Temporary Immovable Obstructions (TIOs). If they are to be treated as TIOs, the Local Rule regarding Temporary Immovable Obstructions should be used (see Model Local Rule F-23). This Local Rule gives a player additional relief if there is interference on the line of sight so that they will not be required to play around or over the obstruction.
The Committee is responsible for deciding whether to adopt any Local Rules and for making sure they are consistent with the principles found in Section 8. A Local Rule is a modification of a Rule or an additional Rule that the Committee adopts for general play or a particular competition. The Committee needs to make sure that any Local Rules are available for players to see, whether on the scorecard, a separate handout, a notice board or the course’s website.
When considering adopting a Local Rule, the Committee should keep in mind the following:
Local Rules have the same status as a Rule of Golf for that competition or course, and
The use of Local Rules should be limited as much as possible and be used only to deal with the types of situations and policies covered in Section 8.
It is not recommended to change any Local Rules for a competition once play has begun for a stroke-play round, unless the change is made before any players in the competition could have been affected by the change.
A full list of authorized Model Local Rules can be found at the start of Section 8.
Local Rules that may be adopted for competitions fall into the following general categories:
Defining Course Boundaries and other Areas of the Course (Sections 8A-8D),
Defining Special Relief Procedures (Section 8E),
Defining Abnormal Course Conditions and Integral Objects (Section 8F),
Use of Specific Equipment (Section 8G),
Who May Give Advice to Players (Section 8H),
When and Where Players May Practise (Section 8I),
Procedures for Suspension of Play (Section 8J),
Pace of Play Policies (Section 8K),
Scorecard Responsibilities (Section 8L), and
Model Local Rules for Players With Disabilities (Section 8M).
As provided in Rule 25.1, the modified Rules for players with disabilities apply to all competitions, and it is a player’s category of disability and eligibility that determine whether they can use specific modified Rules in Rule 25.
It is not necessarily the role of a Committee to make assessments on player eligibility. Determining a player’s eligibility to use specific Rules in Rule 25 can be straightforward, but in some cases it is less obvious. Eligibility for Rule 25 is based on the impact that a player’s impairments have on their ability to play golf rather than being a determination of whether someone is disabled.
A Committee may ask for evidence of a player’s disability in order to confirm the eligibility of a player to use Rule 25. Such evidence could be in the form of a medical certificate, confirmation from a national governing body, a pass issued by an officially accredited medical authority, or something similar.
Alternatively, a Committee may specify that only players who hold a specific pass or certificate are eligible to compete in a competition (with players who are eligible then using the modified Rules applicable to their category of disability).
Examples of passes that a Committee may choose to require as evidence of a category of disability or may require for players to be eligible for specific competitions are the WR4GD Pass and the EDGA Access Pass. These passes are administered and issued by the EDGA Eligibility Team and the application process for golfers to get an EDGA Pass is free of charge. More information can be found at: http://www.edgagolf.com/online/pass/pass_info.php
Many courses have specific practice areas, such as a practice range and practice greens for putting, bunker play and chipping. Players are allowed to practise in these areas, whether they are inside or outside the boundaries of the course. It is recommended that practice areas that are located on the course be specified in the Local Rules to clarify whether players may practise on those areas before and after their rounds. The Committee may need to define the edges of these areas to limit where players may practise.
The Committee may also change the permissions in relation to when and where practice is allowed as follows:
A Local Rule may allow practice on limited and defined parts of the course, for example where there is no permanent practice ground. But, where this applies, it is recommended that players not be allowed to practise on any putting greens or from any bunkers on the course.
A Local Rule may allow practice on the course in general, for example:
If the competition starts late in the day and the Committee does not want to restrict players from playing the course earlier in the day, or
If there has been a suspension of play and it would be more efficient to allow players to hit a few shots from somewhere on the course as opposed to bringing them back to the practice range.
Rule 5.2 covers when practice is allowed or prohibited before or between rounds in a competition, but the Committee may adopt a Local Rule to modify those provisions (see Model Local Rule I-1).
Rule 5.5 gives the Committee the option to adopt a Local Rule to prohibit practice on or around the putting green of the hole just completed (see Model Local Rule I-2).
In selecting which teeing areas to use for a competition, the Committee should seek to balance the difficulty of the course with the ability of the players in the field. For example, it would not be advisable and could have a significant effect on pace of play to choose a teeing area that requires a forced carry that many of the players in the field are unlikely to be able to make with anything other than their very best stroke.
The Committee may decide to use different teeing areas for competitions than those used for general play. If this is done, the Committee should consult the rules or recommendations contained within the World Handicap System publications or other guidance as provided by the handicapping body in the local jurisdiction for guidance on how the issued Course Rating might be impacted. Otherwise, the scores may not be acceptable for submission for handicap purposes.
The locations of the teeing areas may be changed between rounds, including when more than one round is played on the same day.
It is a good practice to place a small mark, such as a paint dot, to the side of or under the tee-markers to ensure that if they get moved they can be returned to their original position. When there are multiple rounds, a different number of dots can be used for each round.
If a competition is being played on a course where there are no signs identifying the holes, or where the Committee has decided to play the course in a different order, signs should be installed to identify the holes clearly.
New holes should ideally be made on the day on which a competition begins and at such other times as the Committee considers necessary, provided all players in a single round play with each hole cut in the same location.
But when a single round is to be played on more than one day (such as when players may choose which day to play in a competition), the Committee may advise players in the Terms of the Competition that the holes and teeing areas will be located differently on each day of the competition. But on any one day, all players must play with each hole and each teeing area in the same location.
The locations of the holes on the putting greens can have a considerable effect on scoring and pace of play during competitions. Many factors go into the selection of hole locations, with emphasis on the following points:
In selecting the locations, the ability of the players should be considered so that the locations selected are not so difficult as to slow down play significantly or so easy as not to challenge better players.
The speed of the greens is a significant factor in choosing the location of the hole. While a hole location may work well for a slower green, it may prove to be too severe when the speed of the greens is increased.
The Committee should avoid placing a hole on a slope where the ball will not come to rest. When the contours of the green allow, holes should be placed where there is an area of two to three feet around the hole that is relatively level so that putts struck at the proper speed will stop around the hole.
Some additional considerations include:
Setting holes where there is enough putting green surface between the hole and the front and sides of the putting green to accommodate the approach on that particular hole. For example, placing the hole immediately behind a bunker when a long approach is required by the majority of the field is usually not recommended.
Balancing hole locations for the entire course with respect to left, right, centre, front and back locations.
In a match-play competition the draw is used to establish the overall order of matches and which players will make up each first-round match. The draw may be done in a number of ways including:
Randomly – Players are picked at random and placed in the draw as chosen.
Qualifying Scores – Players could play one or more qualifying rounds. The players are then placed into the draw based on their scores.
Handicap – Players could be placed in the draw by handicap so that the player with the lowest handicap plays the one with the highest in the first round, the second lowest against the second highest, and so on.
Seeding – Certain players, such as a defending champion, could be seeded into the draw in specific locations, while other players are placed either randomly or through qualifying scores.
Where qualifying scores are used to determine the draw, the draw should be arranged so that the two highest seeded players are on opposite sides of the draw and so on down the line as shown in the following table.
1 vs. 64
2 vs. 63
1 vs. 32
2 vs. 31
32 vs. 33
31 vs. 34
16 vs. 17
15 vs. 18
16 vs. 49
15 vs. 50
8 vs. 25
7 vs. 26
17 vs. 48
18 vs. 47
9 vs. 24
10 vs. 23
8 vs. 57
7 vs. 58
4 vs. 29
3 vs. 30
25 vs. 40
26 vs. 39
13 vs. 20
14 vs. 19
9 vs. 56
10 vs. 55
5 vs. 28
6 vs. 27
24 vs. 41
23 vs. 42
12 vs. 21
11 vs. 22
4 vs. 61
3 vs. 62
29 vs. 36
30 vs. 35
1 vs. 16
2 vs. 15
13 vs. 52
14 vs. 51
8 vs. 9
7 vs. 10
20 vs. 45
19 vs. 46
4 vs. 13
3 vs. 14
5 vs. 60
6 vs. 59
5 vs. 12
6 vs. 11
28 vs. 37
27 vs. 38
12 vs. 53
11 vs. 54
1 vs. 8
2 vs. 7
21 vs. 44
22 vs. 43
4 vs. 5
3 vs. 6
For purposes of determining places in the draw, ties in qualifying rounds other than those for the last qualifying place can be decided by:
The order in which scores are returned, with the first score to be returned receiving the lowest available number and so forth,
A scorecard play-off, or
A random draw among the players who are tied at a specific score.
When there is a tie for the final place in the draw, the Committee may choose to have a play-off or add another round of matches to reduce the field to an even number of players. This should be specified in the Terms of the Competition.
In some events, the Committee may choose to seed the defending champion. When this is done, it is typical to seed the champion as either the first or second seed. The Committee should also decide if it will permit the champion to play in the qualifying event and, if so forfeiting their seeding.
Multiple Draws (also known as Flights or Divisions)
While many competitions have all players competing against all the other players, there are times when a Committee can choose to divide the competition into multiple draws (sometimes called flights or divisions). This may be in order to have players of similar abilities compete against each other or in order to have multiple winners.
The makeup of these draws may be determined by handicap, through stroke play qualifying or by another method determined by the Committee. The Committee should set out how the draws will be set up in the Terms of the Competition.
While the draws may be set by handicap, there is no requirement that the resulting play within the draw be a handicap competition since all the players should be of relatively equal ability.
In a match-play competition, it is a good idea to make the size of the draws so that it will not be necessary to give players byes and, ideally, a size that means all players will play the same number of matches in a knock-out format, such as 8, 16, 32, 64 or 128 players. If there are not enough players to fill the final draw, players should be given byes into the second round as needed. There is no requirement that all the draws have the same number of players. For example, the first or championship draw might have 32 players while the other draws might have 16.
The Committee can set the starting times and groups or allow the players to set their own.
When the Committee allows players to set their own starting time, it has the same status as a starting time set by the Committee (see Rule 5.3a).
There are many considerations in determining the number of players in a group and the interval between groups. When setting starting times and groups, pace of play is an important consideration as well as the amount of time available for play. Groups of two will play faster than groups of three or four. Starting intervals can be closer together for smaller groups. When the Committee chooses to start players on multiple holes (such as holes 1 and 10), it is important to ensure that players will not have an excessive wait if they arrive at the other starting tee before the final group has started. See Section 4A(1) for recommendations on starting intervals.
When a match-play competition will be played over an extended period and players in a match are allowed to agree on when to play during that period:
The Committee should set a date and time by which each match must be completed.
The Committee should specify how the result of the match will be decided should the players fail to complete the match by the specified date, such as disqualifying both players or putting the player named first or second in the draw into the next round.
The Committee may also decide to allow the completion date of a tie to be extended if there are good reasons for doing so. If they decide to do so, it is a matter for the Committee to determine the permissions around such an extension and interpret those permissions.
In match play, the Committee sets the draw showing who will play in each match or otherwise specifies how matches are to be determined. It is best for each match to have its own starting time, but there may be times when two singles matches need to be started together.
In stroke play, a player or side always needs to have someone other than the player or a member of the side to mark the scorecard. The Committee may specify or restrict who may act as the marker for each player by specifying that the marker must be a player in the same competition and group, a player with a handicap, or in some other way.
In a format where two or more partners compete together as a side (for example, in a Foursomes or Four-Ball competition), they are not allowed to act as the side’s marker. Where there is not an even number of sides for a partner format is not even, the Committee may need to find a marker for a side playing on its own or choose to have a group containing three sides.
The Committee may define a specific area at or near the first teeing area where players must be present and ready to play at the starting time (see Rule 5.3a).
This may be defined by painted lines on the ground, by ropes or in some other way.
The Committee can set its own Pace of Play Policy adopted as a Local Rule (see Rule 5.6b). In practice the nature of such a Policy will be dependent on the number of Committee members available to implement it (see Section 8K).
Pace of Play Policies may contain:
A maximum time to complete a round, a hole, a series of holes and / or a stroke.
A definition of when the first group is out of position and when each other group is out of position in relation to the group playing ahead of it.
When and how a group or individual players may be timed.
If and when players may be warned that they are being timed or have had a bad time.
The penalty structure for breaches of the Policy.
The Committee is responsible for making sure that a competition is played at a prompt pace of play. What is considered a prompt pace can be different based on the course, size of the entry and number of players in each group. To do this:
The Committee should adopt a Local Rule setting a Pace of Play Policy (see Rule 5.6b).
Such a Policy should at least set a maximum time for completing the round or parts of the round.
The Policy should stipulate any penalties for a player’s failure to comply with the Policy.
The Committee should also be aware of other actions that they can take to have a positive impact on pace of play. These include:
Management practices such as reducing group sizes, increasing starting intervals, introducing starter’s gaps and using a call-up procedure should there be delays on long pas 3's, driveable par 4's or reachable par 5's.
Considering fundamental changes to course set up such as widening fairways, reducing the thickness or length of rough, or reducing the speed of greens. When changes such as these are made to the course, the Committee should consult the rules or recommendations contained within the World Handicap System publications or other guidance as provided by the handicapping body operating in the local jurisdiction to assess the impact on the issued Course Rating and follow the procedures to make any necessary adjustments.
The Committee may set its own standards of player conduct in a Code of Conduct adopted as a Local Rule (see Rule 1.2b). The purpose of such a Code is to outline the standards of conduct the Committee expects of the players while playing the game of golf and the penalties that may apply for breaches of that Code. But the Rules of Golf determine what actions a player may and may not take while playing the game and a Committee does not have the authority to change those permissions and restrictions by applying penalties differently through a Code of Conduct.
If a Code of Conduct has not been established, the Committee is limited to penalizing players for inappropriate conduct usingRule 1.2a. The only penalty available for an act that is contrary to the spirit of the game under that Rule is disqualification (see Section 5I(5) for more information).
In establishing a Code of Conduct, the Committee should consider the following:
When setting limits or prohibiting a player’s actions, the Committee should consider the different cultures of the players. For example, something that may be considered inappropriate behaviour in one culture may be acceptable under another.
The penalty structure that will apply for a breach of the Code (see Section 5I(4) for an example).
Who will have the authority to decide penalties and sanctions. For example, it could be the case that only certain Committee members have the authority to apply such penalties, a minimum number of Committee members need to be involved in making such a decision or any member of the Committee has authority to make such a decision.
Whether there will be an appeals process.
The Committee may include the following within a Code of Conduct:
Specific details of unacceptable behaviour that a player may be penalized for during a round, for example:
Failure to care for the course, such as not raking bunkers or not replacing or filling divots.
Abuse of clubs or the course.
Failing to show proper consideration for other players, referees or spectators.
A prohibition on players entering all or specified no play zones.
Limitations on the use of social media
Details on acceptable clothing
b. Not Allowed
The Committee may not use a Code of Conduct to:
Change existing penalties in the Rules of Golf, such as by increasing the penalty for a player who fails to mark their ball before lifting it on the putting green, from one stroke to two strokes.
Introduce new penalties for actions unrelated to player behaviour, for example a Committee may not use a Code of Conduct to introduce an unauthorized Local Rule, such as penalizing a player for hitting a ball over properties located out of bounds, or introducing a penalty for a player who fails to announce to another player that they are going to lift a ball to identify it.
Apply stroke penalties for inappropriate player behaviour before or between rounds. But the Committee may apply other sanctions, such as withdrawing the player from the competition or refusing to allow the player to enter future competitions.
Penalize a player under a Code of Conduct for a breach of a spectator code by the player’s family or supporters, such as by penalizing a player when a family member walks on the fairway in a junior competition when they are not allowed to do so.
When determining the sanctions and penalty structure that will apply, the Committee should consider:
If there will be a warning system before any penalty or other sanction is imposed.
If the sanctions will be of a disciplinary nature or involve stroke penalties or other penalites under the Rules. Disciplinary sanctions that a Committee may impose include refusing to allow the player to enter one or more future competitions run by the Committee or requiring the player to play at a particular time of day. Such sanctions are separate from the Rules of Golf and it is a matter for the Committee to write and interpret any such sanctions.
If the penalty for each breach will be set as one penalty stroke or the general penalty and if penalties will escalate, such as one penalty stroke for the first breach and the general penalty for the second breach. The Committee should not use any other types of penalties that would apply to a player’s score.
If a penalty will automatically apply whenever a player breaches one of its standards or if such a penalty will be left to the Committee’s discretion.
If breaches of a Code of Conduct will be carried forward to later rounds in multiple round events where there are escalating penalties for multiple breaches. For example, in a 36-hole competition, where a first breach results in a warning and a second breach results in one penalty stroke, the Committee may provide that any breaches from round 1 carry forward to round 2.
If different penalties will apply for breaching different aspects of the Code.
If the Code of Conduct is to be applied to a player’s caddie. A Code of Conduct automatically applies to a player’s caddie through Rule 10.3c, therefore, if the Committee does not want any aspects of a Code of Conduct to apply to a player’s caddie, this aspect needs to be stated in the Code of Conduct
The following model penalty structures give examples of how the Committee may choose to penalize breaches of a Code of Conduct in the Local Rule.
The Committee may decide to implement such a penalty structure without a warning or sanction for a first breach, or it may provide different penalties for each item within the Code of Conduct. For example, certain breaches may result in one penalty stroke, with other breaches resulting in the general penalty.
Model Penalty Structure 1
First breach of the Code of Conduct – warning or Committee sanction.
Second breach – one penalty stroke.
Third breach – general penalty.
Fourth breach or any serious misconduct – disqualification.
Model Penalty Structure 2
First breach of the Code of Conduct – one penalty stroke.
Second breach – general penalty.
Third breach or any serious misconduct – disqualification.
If a breach happens between two holes, the penalty applies to the next hole.
Under Rule 1.2a, a Committee may disqualify a player for serious misconduct for acting contrary to the spirit of the game. This applies whether or not there is a Code of Conduct in place for a competition.
When deciding whether a player is guilty of serious misconduct, the Committee should consider whether the player’s conduct was do far removed from the expected norm in golf that the most severe sanction of removing a player from the competition is justified.
Examples of actions that could warrant disqualification under Rule 1.2a can be found in Clarification 1.2a/1.
The Committee should ensure that any Local Rules are posted for players to see, whether on a separate handout on the first tee (sometimes referred to as a “Notice to Players”), the scorecard, a notice board or by digital communication methods.
Many organizations that run multiple competitions create a document which contains all the Local Rules they commonly use in all of their competitions. Historically this document has been printed on card stock and is known as a “Hard Card”.
If players are required to play balls on the List of Conforming Ball List (see Model Local Rule G-3) or use clubs on the List of Conforming Driver Heads (see Model Local Rule G-1) or that meet the groove and punch mark specifications (see Model Local Rule G-2), the Committee should consider making the lists available for players to view or provide access to the applicable online databases.
Sheets that provide the groupings for the round along with their starting times should be produced and posted in locations where players can check them. While players are frequently sent their starting time and groups electronically or can check them on a website, they should also be available at the course so that players can reconfirm their starting time.
The Committee may wish to provide players with a sheet that shows them the position of the holes on the putting greens. These may be circles with the distance from the front of the green and the nearest side, a piece of paper with just the numbers or a more detailed set of drawings of the green and its surrounds with the location indicated.
The Committee is responsible for publishing on the scorecard or somewhere else that is visible (for example, near the first tee) the order of holes at which handicap strokes are to be given or received. This allocation will be used for handicap matches and in some forms of net-score stroke play such as Four-Ball, Stableford, Maximum Score (when the maximum score is linked to the player’s net score) and Par/Bogey competitions. For guidance on how to determine the order of handicap strokes, consult System Rules of Handicapping or other guidance as provided by the handicapping body operating in the local jurisdiction.
Match Play – In a handicap match, the Committee should clarify the following in the Terms of the Competition:
If a handicap allowance will apply and what the handicap allowance will be.
The stroke index allocation to be used to identify the order of holes where players will give or receive handicap strokes.
Where the Committee has authorized a match to begin at a hole other than the 1st, the Committee may alter the stroke index allocation table for such matches.
Stroke Play – In a net-score competition, the Committee should determine the handicap allowances in accordance with the rules or recommendations contained within the World Handicap System publications or other guidance as provided by the handicapping body operating in the local jurisdiction.
Copies of the Pace of Play and Code of Conduct policies should be available to players before the competition begins. When players are unfamiliar with these policies, the Committee may wish to explain them to the players in advance of the competition.
Referees and others who will be enforcing these policies should be trained and provided with any other additional materials, such as timing sheets or scripts with the specific language they should use to inform players of warnings or possible breaches.
Each Committee should consider how to evacuate players in case of severe weather or another emergency. If it is felt necessary, an evacuation plan may be created and provided to the players.
“Backstopping“ is the common term used to describe the following situation in stroke play:
A player, without agreement with any other player, leaves their ball in place on the putting green close to the hole in a position where another player, who is about to play from off the putting green, could benefit if their ball struck the ball at rest.
As there has been no agreement to leave the ball in place to help any player, there is no breach of the Rules (see Rule 15.3a).
However, The R&A and USGA take the view that “backstopping” fails to take into account all of the other players in the competition and has the potential to give the player with the “backstop” an advantage over those other players.
As a result, the following guidance and explanation of best practice is available for Committees to provide to players to help prevent backstopping:
In stroke play, the competition involves all players and, because each player in the competition cannot be present to protect their own interests, protecting the field is an important responsibility that all players in the competition share.
Therefore, in stroke play, if there is a reasonable possibility that a player’s ball close to the hole could help another player who is about to play from off the green, both players should ensure that the player whose ball is close to the hole marks and lifts that ball before the other player plays.
If all players follow this best practice, it ensures the protection of the interests of everyone in the competition.