All defined terms are in italics and are listed alphabetically in the Definitions section - see pages 2235.
A player must not (i) take an action with the intent to influence the movement of a ball in play or (ii) alter physical conditions with the intent of affecting the playing of a hole.
Match play - Loss of hole; Stroke play - Two strokes.
Note 1: A player is deemed to have committed a serious breach of Rule 1-2 if the Committee considers that the action taken in breach of this Rule has allowed him or another player to gain a significant advantage or has placed another player, other than his partner, at a significant disadvantage.
Note 2: In stroke play, except where a serious breach resulting in disqualification is involved, a player in breach of Rule 1-2 in relation to the movement of his own ball must play the ball from where it was stopped, or, if the ball was deflected, from where it came to rest. If the movement of a player's ball has been intentionally influenced by a fellow-competitor or other outside agency, Rule 1-4 applies to the player (see Note to Rule 19-1).
Players must not agree to exclude the operation of any Rule or to waive any penalty incurred.
Match play - Disqualification of both sides;
Stroke play - Disqualification of competitors concerned.
(Agreeing to play out of turn in stroke play - see Rule 10-2c)
If any point in dispute is not covered by the Rules, the decision should be made in accordance with equity.