saline soils -
Soils in which there is a heavy accumulation of salts that
adversely affects plant growth. Soils are categorized as saline
when soluble salts reach or exceed ECe > 4.0 dSm.
saline-sodic soils -
Soils with both a high salt content (ECe > 4.0 dSm
) and high exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP > 15%).
salt index -
Used to measure the effect of fertilizers on soil solution, and
is expressed as a ratio of increase in osmotic pressure produced
by a material to that produced by the same weight of sodium
See 'soil separates.'
saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC) -
A laboratory-determined value measuring the speed at which water
moves through the pores of a soil or root zone mixture. The
number is expressed in inches or millimeters per hour. SHC is
frequently confused with
- a term used to describe the speed at which water can enter the
Two ranges are specified in the USGA Method of Putting Green
Construction: accelerated range and normal range. The accelerated
range is 12 to 24 inches per hour and is typically specified in
areas where poor quality water must be used, very high annual
rainfall is received, or bentgrass is planted well outside it's
range of adaptation. The normal range is 6 to 12 inches per
Turf damage occurring under conditions of excessive water, high
temperatures, and intense light.
The term for removing an excessive amount of the green leaf
surface, leaving a stubbly brown turf. Continued scalping will
weaken or kill the turf.
seed bed -
An area of soil prepared for seeding.
seed head -
Inflorescence; the fruiting structure of a grass plant.
A plant grown from seed, usually refers to a young plant.
selective herbicide -
One that can be applied to a mixed stand of grasses, but will
selectively kill certain weeds without injuring the
The process of excavating the existing root zone of a green
without disturbing the surrounding areas or grades. Shelling is
used to install a new drainage system and root zone mixture
without significantly modifying the architecture of the green or
See 'soil separates.'
A form of cultivation involving a deep, vertical-cutting action,
used to open the soil as well as the turf.
A disease caused by a smut fungus; or the fungus itself.
Plugs, blocks, squares, or strips of turfgrass with adhering soil
used for vegetative planting.
The planting of sod.
sodic soil -
Soils with a high percentage of cation exchange sites occupied by
sodium (> 15%). The high sodium percentage causes infiltration
and permeability problems due to de-flocculation of soil
sodium absorption ratio (SAR) -
Used to determine whether sodium levels in water will cause soil
structure to deteriorate. A ratio of calcium, magnesium, and
sodium ions in irrigation water.
adjusted sodium absorption ratio (SAR
A calculated value used to predict an increased sodium hazard of
an irrigation source with a high bicarbonate content. A ratio of
calcium, magnesium, sodium, and bicarbonate ions in irrigation
soluble powder -
A powdered pesticide material that dissolves completely when
mixed into water.
soil analysis: chemical -
The process of determining the relative amounts of nutrients in
the soil available to the grass plant.
soil analysis: physical -
The process of determining the percentages of sand, soil, and
organic matter required for the best physical arrangement of soil
separates for a mixture suitable for putting green root zone
soil modification -
Alteration of soil characteristics by adding soil amendments such
as sand, peat, etc.; commonly used to improve physical
soil probe -
A tool used to remove a one inch diameter, four to ten inch long
soil core from turf areas to examine root development, thatch
depth, topsoil depth, soil arrangement, and soil moisture.
soil separates -
Particles into which soil can be separated by size without regard
to chemical composition, color, weight, or other properties.
soil sterilant -
A chemical that renders soil free of living organisms.
soil structure -
A property of soils that depends upon the arrangement of soil
particles and aggregation. The soil fractions made up of small
particles form aggregates that may or may not behave as more or
less discrete bodies.
soil texture -
The relative proportions of the various soil separates in a soil.
The coarseness or fineness of the soil.
Classification category into which similar individuals in the
plant or animal kingdom are placed. Related organisms or
populations potentially capable of interbreeding.
The act of perforating turf and soil crust by use of solid tines,
spikes, or blades.
spray drift -
The aerial movement of small spray particles away from the target
The planting of stolons (runners), rhizomes, or vegetative
segments of plants in furrows or small holes.
step cut -
An intermediate rough cut usually the width of a triplex machine
around the fairway perimeter. Mowing heights usually range from
1" - 1.25".
To make unproductive or render incapable of germination.
An implement used to measure putting green speed uniformity.
Creeping, trailing, or reclining stems or runners above ground
which may produce roots and new stems and become independent
To plant surface runners or stolons.
The soil base or foundation upon which the green is constructed.
The subgrade is the first layer of the new green. Drainage lines
are cut into the subgrade and the gravel layer laid over the
subgrade. The subgrade is usually constructed from native soil
collected somewhere on the construction site.
A secondary plant nutrient that also is used as a soil amendment
to modify pH in alkaline soils. Also used in calcareous and
caliche soils (containing high lime) to convert lime into plant
sulfur burner / sulfurous generator -
Used to treat poor quality irrigation water that contains both
excessive bicarbonates and a high sodium hazard. Equipment that
burns sulfur at high temperatures and produces sulfurous gas that
when combined with water becomes sulfuric acid. Also see acid
A surface active agent that reduces surface tension on plant
materials and/or soil particles. Wetting agents are common
Lacking the inherent ability to resist. Turf may be susceptible
to diseases, insect damage, weed encroachment, traffic injury,
A system in which insoluble materials are dispersed in a
The favorable action of one chemical upon another, causing an
accelerated action or a greater result than the individual
actions added together.
Light sprinkling of water on turf usually done during the hot
part of the day to prevent wilting. The goal is to apply enough
water to wet the leaves and cool the turf, not the soil.< Back