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parasites - Organisms that obtain their food directly from living bodies of other organisms. Parasites vary greatly in the amount of damage they inflict upon the host organism.

pathogen - An organism that causes disease.

peat - Unconsolidated material consisting largely of non-decomposed or slightly- decomposed organic matter accumulated under conditions of excess moisture.

permeability - A measure of the rate with which air, roots, and water penetrate the soil.

perennial grasses - Lasting or continuing from year to year in areas where adapted.

pesticide - An agent used to control pests such as weeds, insects, or diseases.

pH - A numerical measurement of the hydrogen ion concentration. The measurement indications of the relative acidity or alkalinity. Values below 7 are increasingly acid; values above 7 are increasingly alkaline.

phytotoxic - Harmful to plants.

plugging - The vegetative propagation of turfgrass by means of plugs or small sod pieces. A method of establishing vegetatively propagated turfgrasses, as well as repairing damaged area.

poling - Using a long (bamboo or fiberglass) switch or pole to remove dew and exudations from a turf by switching the pole in a wide arc while it is in contact with the turf surface. Also used in breakup of clumps of clippings and earthworm casts. The practice is usually confined to putting greens.

pore space - The space between solid soil particles or aggregates that is normally filled with water, air, or grass roots.

porosity, soil total - The degree to which the soil mass is permeated with pores or cavities. The porosity is the sum of the capillary and non-capillary porosity values.

porosity, capillary - The percentage of pores in a soil or root zone mixture that retain water after free drainage. This also is occasionally referred to as water-filled porosity.

porosity, non-capillary - The large pores in a soil or root zone mixture that are filled with air after free drainage. Also referred to as air-filled porosity.

post-emergence - Term used in reference to treatments, e.g., herbicide treatment made after weed seedlings have emerged from the soil.

potable water - Water that is at a quality level fit for drinking.

practice green - A putting green area usually constructed in close proximity to the clubhouse for the purpose of allowing golfers to practice. This green should be representative of the regular greens so that golfers can develop a touch for play on the golf course greens.

pre-emergence - Term used in reference to treatments, e.g., treatment made before weed seedlings emerge from the soil.

profile, soil - A cross-section of soil that shows the layers or horizons.

putting green - The area of the hole being played that is specially prepared for putting or otherwise defined as such by the Committee. A ball is deemed to be on the putting green when any part of it touches the putting green. Putting greens are often mowed between 1/8 th and 1/4 th of an inch, depending upon the turf quality desired.

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rebuilding - A term that refers to practices involving complete changes in the total turf area, i.e., reconstruction of a green, tee, fairway, rough or any other area of the golf course.

recycled / reclaimed / reuse water - A water source not considered of potable quality that has been used for another purpose prior to use as irrigation. Recycled water can include, but is not limited to, treated residential or industrial sewerage effluent, storm runoff and/or recaptured irrigation runoff. These water sources often contain higher quantities of salts than groundwater or potable sources. Recycled water is the preferred terminology.

renovation - Turf improvement involving replanting into existing live and/or dead vegetation.

residual period - The period during which a chemical substance retains its effectiveness.

residual sodium carbonate (RSC)- A formula used to determine the need for acidification of irrigation water (either acid injection or sulfur burner water treatments). Total levels of magnesium and calcium are subtracted from total levels of carbonate and bicarbonate contained in irrigation water. RSC values of less than 1.25 are generally safe for irrigation; 1.25 - 2.5 is considered marginal, and greater than 2.5 is usually unsuitable unless treated.

resiliency - the capability of the turf to spring back when balls, shoes, or other objects strike the surface, thus providing a cushioning effect.

rhizome - An underground, root-like stem; underground creeping stem; a root stock.

rough - Usually referred to as the turfgrass area immediately adjacent to and on either side of the fairway. In terms of maintenance, roughs are usually mowed at heights between 1.5 to 2 inches for daily play and up to 4 inches for tournament play.

rust - a disease caused by a rust fungus or the fungus itself.

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The USGA and Chevron have committed to using the game of golf to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines. This commitment has led to the creation of extensive golf-focused STEM teaching tools, and has resulted in charitable contributions to support golf-related programs through Eagles for Education™

At U.S. Open Championships the Chevron STEM ZONE™ is an interactive experience highlighting the science and math behind the game of golf through a variety of hands-on exhibits and experiments.

The partnership has also produced educational materials such as the Science of Golf video series and a nationally-distributed newspaper insert which are provided to teachers as tools to enhance existing curriculum in schools. These lessons teach the science behind the USGA’s equipment testing, handicapping, and agronomy efforts.

For more interactive experiences featuring golf-focused STEM lessons, visit the partnership homepage.

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Rolex has been a longtime supporter of the USGA and salutes the sportsmanship and great traditions unique to the game. This support includes the Rules of Golf where Rolex has partnered with the USGA to ensure golfers understand and appreciate the game.

As the official timekeeper of the USGA and its championships, they also provide clocks throughout host sites for spectator convenience.

For more information on Rolex and their celebration of the game, visit the Rolex and Golf homepage.



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IBM has partnered with the USGA to bring the same technology, expertise, and innovation it provides to businesses all over the world to the USGA and golf's national championship.

IBM provides the information technology to develop and host the U.S. Open’s official website, www.usopen.com, as well as the mobile apps and scoring systems for the three U.S. Open championships. These real-time technology solutions provide an enhanced experience for fans following the championship onsite and online.

For more information on IBM and the technology that powers the U.S. Open and businesses worldwide, visit http://www.usopen.com/IBM

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Lexus is committed to partnering with the USGA to deliver a best-in-class experience for the world’s best golfers by providing a fleet of courtesy luxury vehicles for all USGA Championships.

At each U.S. Open, Women’s Open and Senior Open, Lexus provides spectators with access to unique experiences ranging from the opportunity to have a picture taken with both the U.S. Open and U.S. Women’s Open trophies to autograph signings with legendary Lexus Golf Ambassadors in the Lexus Performance Drive Pavilion.

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Together, American Express and the USGA have been providing world-class service to golf fans since 2006. By creating interactive U.S. Open experiences both onsite and online, American Express enhances the USGA’s effort to make the game more accessible and enjoyable for fans.

For more information on American Express visit www.americanexpress.com/entertainment


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