Environmental Impact

There is increasing concern about long-term climate change due to an increase in greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere. What role do the turfgrasses commonly grown on golf courses have on greenhouse gases? These six USGA projects are among the first research studies to evaluate the amount of carbon dioxide stored in the soil each year by golf course turf, as well as the gases emitted by these plants while actively growing and maintained. At this time, the focus is on the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (NO2) that is released to the atmosphere or stored in the soil by actively growing turfgrass.

Project Title


Water-Use Efficiency and Carbon Sequestration Influenced by Turfgrass Species and Management Practices

University of California, Riverside

Carbon Footprint and Agronomy Practices to Reduce Carbon Footprint of Golf Courses

Colorado State University

Examining Turfgrass Species and Management Regimes for Enhanced Carbon Sequestration

Purdue University

Nitrous Oxide and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Turfgrass: Effects of Irrigation

Kansas State University

Various fertilizer sources and cultivation practices for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and potentially mineralizable nitrogen on Creeping bentgrass and Kentucky bluegrass.

University of Minnesota

Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Stands of Cool Season Turfgrass Managed with Organic and Synthetic Nitrogen Fertilize

University of Wisconsin


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