Glossary of Golf Turfgrass Terms (T-W)

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temporary grasses - Grasses considered to be nurse grasses, which are short-lived in duration, but valuable to soil stability until the permanent grasses form a turfgrass cover. Also, overseeding grasses used in southern climates to provide winter color while permanent grasses are dormant.

texture, grass - The width of individual leaves.

thatch - A tightly intermingled layer of dead and living parts (HTMLContents, stolons, shoots, stems, etc.) that develops between the green vegetation and soil surface. One-half inch or less is deemed desirable on turfgrass surfaces.

tissue analysis - Chemical analysis of turfgrass leaf, stem, or HTMLContent tissue with the purpose of determining nutrient content.

topdressing - A prepared mixture of soil usually containing sand and organic matter to a desired specification. It also may contain physical conditioning materials, nutrients, and pesticides which are spread over turfgrass areas for the purpose of improving the surface, adding to the nutrient-supplying ability of the soil, or applying pesticides. Used for leveling, smoothing, covering stolons or sprigs in vegetative planting, as an aid in controlling thatch, and in maintaining biological balance.

topsoil - A general term applied to the top layer of native or natural soil found on any open land site to be used for agriculture. Normally limited to the uppermost soil horizon referred to as the "A" horizon of soils.

toxicity - Quality, state, or degree of being toxic.

transition zone - Commonly referred to as the geographical zone which is too far north to grow warm-season grasses well and too far south to grow cool-season grasses well.

translocation - The movement of dissolved materials from one part of a plant to another.

transpiration - Giving-off of water vapor by the plant. Evaporation of water through the stomata.

turf - A vegetative ground cover composed of close cut, thickly growing, intertwining stems and leaves of grass plants; sod.

turfgrass - A grass used in the production of turf.


vapor drift - The drift of vapor; usually of volatile chemical materials.

variety - In classification of plants, a subdivision of species. Preferred term is species.

vegetative propagation - Plant establishment by means of pieces of vegetation, i.e., sprigs or sod pieces.

verdure - The amount of green turf per unit area remaining after cutting.

vertical mowing (verticutting) - The thinning of turfgrasses by blades or wire tines which cut perpendicular to the soil surface. Specifically designed to remove mat, thatch, and grain from putting greens; to thin dense turf.

viable seeds - Seeds capable of germination, growth, and development.

volatile - Readily changes from a liquid to vapor state.


warm-season grasses - Grasses that grow most actively during the summer months, (e.g. bermudagrass, buffalograss, seashore paspalum, zoysiagrass).

water analysis - The process of determining the relative amounts of ions (nutrients and salts) in water to determine its quality for irrigation purposes. Used to predict adverse effects upon plants and soil structure.

water dispersible granules (WDG) - A dry, dust-free, granulated formulation of pesticide that dissolves completely into solution when mixed with water.

weeds - Plants growing out of place; undesirable or unwanted plants.

wettable powder - A dry powdered formulation of a pesticide containing a wetting agent that when mixed with water forms a semi-stable suspension and can be applied in a spray solution

wetting agent - See 'surfactant.'

wet wilt - When a plant wilts from lack of water even though standing in water. Roots do not function properly. Water and oxygen movement become impaired with excessive amounts of water in the soil profile.

wicking barrier - An impervious plastic barrier installed at the edge of the cavity of a green. It separates the HTMLContent zone mixture in the green from the heavier soil in area surrounding the green with the purpose of preventing excessive drawing or wicking of moisture from the HTMLContent zone mixture into the heavier surrounding soil.

wilt- Loss of leaf turgidity. Drooping of plant leaves due to inadequate water supply or excessive transpiration. Also a vascular disease which interferes with utilization of water by a plant or to a toxin produced by an organism.

winterkill (injury) - Term applied to injuries of turf that occur during the winter, and become evident the following spring.

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